Arad, Romania

From Academic Kids

Arad (population: 172,824) is a city in Arad county, Transylvania, in the west part of Romania.

It is situated on the right bank of the river Mureş, and consists of the inner town and five suburbs. Arad is a modern town and contains many handsome private and public buildings, including a cathedral. It is the seat of a Greek-Orthodox bishop, and possesses a Greek-Orthodox theological seminary and a conservatory for music.

Arad was mentioned in documents for the first time in 11th century. The Mongols invasion in 1241 showed that defence positions were needed and in the second half of the 13th century there were build stone fortresses at Soimos, Siria and Dezna. Turks conquered the region in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699.

The new fortress, built between 1763 and 1783, although small, played an important role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. Defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was then captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the insurrection. It was from it that Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (August 11, 1849), and it was here that he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Gorgei. The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender of Gorgei to the Russians at Világos. Here there were executed 13 rebel generals on 6 October 1849. These men are known collectively as the "13 Martyrs of Arad".

Arad enjoyed a great economic development. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town", at the solemnities being present the emperor Francisc I. In 1910 it was the biggest town in Transylvania with 61,000 inhabitants.

The town of Aradu Nou, i.e. New Arad (population 6,124), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureş, is practically a suburb of Arad, to which it is connected by a bridge. The town was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new town.

External links

de:Arad (Rumänien) eo:Arad hu:Arad nl:Arad (Roemenië) pl:Arad ro:Arad

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