Francis I of the Two Sicilies

From Academic Kids

Francis I (August 14, 1777 - November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830.

Francis was born in Naples, the son of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Queen Marie Caroline née Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria.

He married Archduchess Marie Klementine of Austria, daughter of the emperor Leopold II, in 1796, and at her death Isabella Infanta of Spain, daughter of Charles IV of Spain.

After the Bourbon family fled from Naples to Sicily in 1806, and Lord William Bentinck, the British resident, had established a constitution and deprived Ferdinand I of all power, Francis was appointed regent (1812).

On the fall of Napoleon his father returned to Naples and suppressed the Sicilian constitution and autonomy, incorporating his two kingdoms into that of the Two Sicilies (1816); Francis then assumed the revived title of duke of Calabria. While still heir apparent he professed liberal ideas, and on the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 he accepted the regency apparently in a friendly spirit towards the new constitution. But he was playing a double game and proved to be the accomplice of his father's treachery.

On succeeding to the throne in 1825 he cast aside the mask of liberalism and showed himself as reactionary as his father. He took little part in the government, which he left in the hands of favourites and police officials, and lived with his mistresses, surrounded by soldiers, ever in dread of assassination. During his reign the only revolutionary movement was the outbreak on the Cilento (1828), savagely repressed by the marquis Delcarretto, an ex-Liberal turned reactionary.

Children

With Marie Klementine of Austria:

  • Maria Carolina (1798-1870), who married 1st Charles Ferdinand Prince of France, Duke de Berry and 2nd Ettore Count Lucchesi Palli, Prince di Campofranco, Duke della Grazia.
  • Ferdinando (1800-1801).

With Isabella of Spain:

  • María Cristina (1806-1878), who married 1st her uncle Ferdinand VII of Spain (her mother's older brother) and 2nd Ferdinand Muñoz, Duke of Rianzares.
  • Luisa Carlota (1804-1844), who married her uncle Francisco de Paula, Infante of Spain, her mother's younger brother.
  • Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
  • Carlo Ferdinando, Prince di Capua (1811-1862). Married morganatically to Penelope Smyth and had issue.
  • Leopoldo, Count di Siracusa (1813-1860). Married Maria Princess of Savoy-Carignano. No issue.
  • Maria Antonietta (1814-1898). Married Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
  • Antonio, Count di Lecce (1816-1843).
  • Marie Amalie (1818-1857), who married Sebastian de Bourbon, Infante of Spain.
  • Maria Carolina (1820-1861). Married Carlos Infante of Spain and carlist pretender to the throne of Spain.
  • Teresa (1822-1889). Married Pedro II of Brazil.
  • Luigi, Count di Aquila (1824-1897). Married Januaria Princess Imperial of Brazil and Infanta of Portugal (sister of Pedro II of Brazil and Maria II of Portugal). Had issue.
  • Francesco, Count di Trani (1827-1892). Married Princess Isabella of Tuscany and had issue.
Preceded by:
Ferdinand I
King of the Two Sicilies
1825-1830
Succeeded by:
Ferdinand II
de:Franz I. (Sizilien)

nl:Frans I der Beide Siciliën

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