History of the Ottoman Empire

From Academic Kids

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I (in Arabic Uthmān, hence the name Ottoman Empire). As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, however, the empire began a slow decline, culminating in the defeat of the empire by the Allies in World War I.

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Rise

Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire

In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into hundreds of small states. One of these states was Söğüt, a small tribe settled in the river valley of Sakarya. The founder and bey (chief) of the tribe was Ertoğrül, the father of Osman I. When Ertoğrül died in 1281, Osman became the leader of the tribe and became the founder of a great empire that would exist for more than six centuries.

Fall

Main article: Fall of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire failed to keep up technologically with its European rivals, especially Russia. It suffered a huge naval loss at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Ottoman Empire began a long period of decline. After the great defeat of the Ottomans at Vienna, Prince Eugene of Savoy lead Austrian forces to further victories. By 1699, the whole of Hungary had been conquered from the Ottomans by the Austrians. The decline culminated in the defeat of the empire by the Allies in World War I.

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