John Adams Dix

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John Adams Dix

John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798April 21, 1879) was an American politician. He served as the Secretary of the Treasury, U.S. Senator from New York, and Governor. He was also a distinguished Civil War General.

Dix was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire. He joined the Royal Artillery as a military cadet at the age of 14. He served in the United States Army, having attained the rank of captain.

In 1826, Dix married Catherine Morgan, the adopted daughter of Congressman John J. Morgan, who gave Dix a job overseeing his upstate New York land holdings in Cooperstown. John and Catherine moved to Cooperston in 1828, and John practiced law in addition to overseeing the land holdings. Dix was appointed Adjutant General of New York State by Governor Throop, he moved to Albany, New York in 1830, and he served as New York State Secretary of State.

Dix was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Silas Wright, Jr., and served from 1845 to 1849. He was not a candidate for reelection, having become a candidate for Governor. He was an unsuccessful Free-Soil candidate for Governor in 1848.

Later, he was appointed postmaster of the city of New York and served from 1860 to 1861. He was appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury by President James Buchanan in 1861.

During the Civil War, as a major general in the Union army, he commanded the Department of Virginia from June, 1862 until July, 1863, and the Department of the East from July, 1863 until April, 1865.

He was the United States Minister to France from 1866 to 1869.

He served as the Governor of New York in his seventies, as one of the oldest governors of New York, between 1873 and 1875; he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1874. He suffered another defeat when he ran for the mayor of New York City in 1876. He died in New York City and was interred in the Trinity Church Cemetery.

He is not to be confused with John Alden Dix, another Governor of New York, who served in the 1910s.

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Preceded by:
Henry A. Foster
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New York
1845-1849
Succeeded by:
William H. Seward
Preceded by:
Phillip F. Thomas
United States Secretary of the Treasury
18601861
Succeeded by:
Salmon P. Chase
Preceded by:
William Butler Ogden
President of the Union Pacific Railroad
18631868
Succeeded by:
Thomas A. Scott
Preceded by:
John T. Hoffman
Governor of New York
18731875
Succeeded by:
Samuel J. Tilden

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