Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters

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(Redirected from Justice and Home Affairs)

Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism.

It was created as the Justice and Home Affairs pillar in the Treaty of Maastricht; subsequently the Treaty of Amsterdam transferred the areas of illegal immigration, visas, asylum, and judicial co-operation to the integrated first (European Community) pillar. The term Justice and Home Affairs now covers these integrated fields as well as the intergovernmental third pillar.

Before the Treaty of Maastricht, member states cooperated at the intergovernmental level in various sectors relating to free movement and personal security («group of co-ordinators», CELAD, TREVI) as well as in customs co-operation (GAM) and judicial policy. With Maastricht, Justice and Home Affairs co-operation aims at reinforcing actions taken by member states while allowing a more coherent approach of these actions, by offering new tools for coordinating actions. The Treaty of Maastricht established that, while reaching the objectives of the Union, and notably the freedom of movement, the member states consider the following as areas of common interest:

  1. Asylum;
  2. Rules concerning the entrance of external borders;
  3. Immigration policies and policies concerning third countries' citizens:
    • Conditions of entry and circulation foreign citizens in the territory of the Union;
    • Conditions of residence for foreign citizens in the territory of Member States, comprising families and employment access;
    • Fight against irregular immigration, residence and work of foreigners within the territory of the Union;
  4. Combating illicit drugs where this is not covered by point 7), 8) and 9);
  5. Fight against international fraud where this is not covered by points 7), 8) and 9);
  6. Judicial co-operation in civil matters;
  7. Judicial co-operation in penal matters;
  8. Customs co-operation;
  9. Police co-operation for preventing and fighting terrorism, drugs trade and other grave forms of international criminality, comprising, if necessary, certain aspects of customs co-operation.

Timeline

Evolution of the Structures of European Union Template:EU-timelinede:Polizeiliche und justizielle Zusammenarbeit in Strafsachen no:Politi- og strafferettslig samarbeid (EU)

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