List of grammatical cases

From Academic Kids

This is a list of cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension.

Contents

Place and Time

Note: most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

Location

Case Usage Example Found in
Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Lithuanian
Inessive case inside something inside the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian
Locative case location at/on/in the house Belarusian | Czech | Hungarian (only for some traditional town names) | Inari Sami | Latvian | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovakian | Turkish
Temporal case (used only with time expressions)
specifying a time
at seven Hungarian
Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house Hungarian

Motion

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative case movement away from something away from the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Sanskrit | Turkish
Allative case in Hungarian and in Finnish:
movement to (the adjacency of) something
in Finnish:
movement onto something
to the house

onto the house
Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Lithuanian | Turkish
Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house Hungarian
Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house Udmurt
Elative case out of something out of the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian
Illative case movement into something into the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inari Sami | Lithuanian | Northern Sami
Lative case motion to location to/into the house Erzya | Finnish | Turkish
Prolative case movement using a surface or way by way of/through the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish
Prosecutive case across or along along the road Kalaallisut
Sublative case movement onto the surface on(to) the house Hungarian
Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house Estonian | Hungarian
Vialis case through or by by way of the house, using the house Inuktitut

Chart for review for the basic cases

  interior surface adjacency
from Elative case Delative case Ablative case
at/in Inessive case Superessive case Adessive case
(in)to Illative case Sublative case Allative case

Morphosyntactic alignment

For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see theta role.

Case Usage Example Found in
Absolutive case (1) patient, experiencer he pushed the door and it opened Basque
Absolutive case (2) patient, involuntary experiencer she crossed the ice; he slipped nominative-absolutive languages
Absolutive case (3) patient; experiencer; instrument he pushed the door with his hand and it opened Inuktitut
Accusative case (1) patient she opened the door Czech | Erzya | Esperanto | Finnish | German | Hungarian | Inari Sami | Latin | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovakian
Accusative case (2) direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time I see her Inuktitut | Persian | Turkish
Ergative case agent he pushed the door and it opened Basque | Chechen | Georgian | Samoan
Ergative-genitive case agent, possession he pushed the door and it opened; her dog Inuktitut
Instrumental/Instructive case instrument by means of the house Belarusian | Czech | Finnish | Georgian | Lithuanian | Polish | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovakian
Instrumental-comitative case instrument, in company of something with the house Hungarian
Nominative case (1) agent he pushed the door and it opened nominative-accusative languages
Nominative case (2) agent; voluntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; she paused nominative-absolutive languages
Objective case direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive I saw her; I gave her the book; with her. English
Oblique case all-round case; any situation except nominative concerning the house Hindi
Passive case or patient case the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb The door opened languages of the Caucasus

Relation

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative case all-round indirect case concerning the house Inuktitut | Latin | Lithuanian
Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house Basque | Quechua
Causal case because, because of because of the house Quechua
Causal-final case efficient or final cause for a house Hungarian
Comitative case in company of something with the house Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Northern Sami
Dative case shows direction or receiver for/to the house Belarusian | Czech | Erzya | Georgian | German | Hindi | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Latin | Lithuanian | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovakian
Dedative case (Respective) related to related to the house Quenya
Distributive case distribution by piece per house Finnish | Hungarian
Distributive-temporal case how often something happens daily; on Sundays Hungarian
Genitive case shows relationship, possession of the house Belarusian | Czech | Dutch | Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Georgian | German | Greek | Inari Sami | Latin | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovakian | Swedish
Possessive case direct possession of something owned by the house English | Quenya
Sociative case along with something, together with something with the house Hungarian

Semantics

Case Usage Example Found in
Disjunctive case used when the subject is repeated for emphasis or to itemize a plural subject the house and the car, they're both here French (only for pronouns)
Partitive case used for amounts three (of the) houses Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami
Prepositional case when a preposition precedes the noun in/on/by/with the house Russian
Vocative case used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition Hey, house!
O house!
House!
Arabic | Belarusian (rare) | Czech | Georgian | Greek | Hindi | Latin | Lithuanian | Polish | Romanian | Sanskrit | Serbian

State

Case Usage Example Found in
Abessive case the lack of something without the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami
Essive case temporary state of being as the house Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Middle Egyptian | Northern Sami
Essive-formal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian
Essive-modal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian
Excessive case marking a transition from a condition from as being a house Estonian | Finnish
Translative case change of a condition into another (becoming) into a house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian
cs:Mluvnick pd

de:Kasus eo:Gramatika kazo es:Caso (gramtica) fr:Cas hr:Padež hu:Eset is:Fall (mlfri) ja:格 nl:Naamval pl:Lista przypadkw ro:Caz ru:Падеж

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