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List of liberal parties

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Liberalism [edit]

Contributions to liberal theory
Liberalism worldwide
List of liberal parties
Liberal International
ELDR
Liberal democracy

This is an overview of parties that adhere more or less (explicitly) to the ideas of political liberalism and is therefore a list of liberal parties around the world.

Contents

Introduction

One can argue what a liberal party is. In this list a liberal party is defined as a political party, that adheres to the basic principles of (political) liberalism. This is a broad political current, that includes both more right of center or free market liberals and more left of center liberals. All liberal parties emphasize individual liberty, but they differ in their opinion on an active role for the state. Liberal parties believe in the growth of a free society based on personal liberty, personal responsibility and social justice. When liberals have gained power and realized their first reforms, one often sees a divergence within the ranks of liberals:

  • Some are satisfied and rest apart with these reforms, developing into liberal conservatives or simply becoming conservatives, mostly still adhering to free market policies. An example is the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan). These parties are not included in the list below.
  • The mainstream of liberalism continues on the path of gradual reforms, embraces electoral democracy as a basic liberal position and organizes itself in the form of the traditional liberal parties. These parties are included in the list .
  • Part of this mainstream emphasizes classical liberal issues and concentrates on economic liberalism. This is, for example, the origin of libertarianism. By many people this is considered a separate political theory/current. Others argue that these parties are also liberal parties. Therefore they are included.
  • Another current wants more and radical reforms. It embraces and emphasizes democratic reforms and often strives after social reforms. These parties sometimes prefer to name themselves radical or progressive liberal and are generally quite positive about the role of the state while continuing to support a market economy. United States liberalism developed out of this tradition. Progressive liberals tend to use words as Radical, Progressive, Free-minded or simply Democratic in stead of Liberal. These left wing liberal parties are included in the list.
Note 1: It is said that United States liberalism differs from the liberalism in most other countries. It includes progressive liberals mentioned here, but also people that would be considered social democrats in other countries.
  • For some this doesn’t go far enough: they joined socialist or social democratic parties.
  • Next to these development one sees the rise of new centrist or pragmatic parties that share liberal values and develop into liberal or similar parties. These parties are included in the list too.
  • Finally one sees liberals joining parties with a broader political range. This happens especially in countries where the electoral system favors a two-party system. (See below for a list of parties.)
Note 2: In some cases the liberal current has developed into a populist direction, like in the case of the Freedom Party (Austria), in other cases populist parties have adopted the word "liberal" in their names, like in the cases of the Liberal Democratic Party (Russia) and the Liberal Democratic Party (Lithuania). These parties have only a tenuous connection to any tradition that would usually be called "liberal".

Many liberal or similar parties are member of the Liberal International and/or of its regional partners, like the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party and the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats. Mainly due to national contexts or power reasons some of these parties joined either the Socialist International or the conservative International Democratic Union and its regional partners. Generally the membership of the liberal organizations is an indication that a party is a liberal party and all members are listed. This includes also some centre parties of which the liberal character is disputed by some. Membership of the Socialist International or the International Democratic Union is a contra-indication. These contra-indications doesn't exclude a listing.

International organizations of parties

Parliamentary parties and other parties with substantial support

This list includes also parties which were represented in the last previous legislature and still exists as well as some banned or exiles parties (Burma, Cuba). Liberals might be active in other parties, but that is no reason to include a party.
A more extensive overview by country and defunct parties can be found at Liberalism worldwide
See the remarks above about the criteria. Minor parties are listed below

Albania

Liberalism is weak in Albania. Two parties could be considered to embrace liberal values: the Democratic Alliance Party (Partia Aleanca Demokratike, member LI, ELDR) and the Unity for Human Rights Party (Partia Bashkimi për të Drejtat e Njeriut), which is the party of the ethnic minorities.

Algeria

There is no liberal party in Algeria. The main Berber party, the Rally for Culture and Democracy (Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie) could be considered to embrace some liberal values.

Andorra

The Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra, member LI, ELDR) is a right of center liberal party and became the dominant political party.

Angola

The liberal Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democratico, member LI) is a small liberal party.

Argentina

The traditional progressive liberal party is the Radical Civic Union (Unión Civica Radical, a party that joined the SI). Nowadays it more or less adheres to a synthesis of liberal and social democratic ideas. The party Recreate for Growth (Recrear para el Crecimiento) seems to be an attempt to form a market liberal party. Some provincial conservative parties use the label liberal. The Union of Democratic Center (Unión del Centro Democrático) considers itself to be a liberal party, others see it as a conservative party.

Armenia

Traditional liberalism doesn't play a role in Armenia any more, but the Republican Party of Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun) joined the ELDR group in the Council of Europe.

Aruba

The character of the Aruban Liberal Organization (Organisacion Liberal Arubiano) is not clear.

Australia

The main conservative party is named Liberal Party of Australia. Some would argue that this party is a liberal party and it includes liberals. Other would stress conservatism as its ideology. The Australian Democrats is a left of center liberal party, of which the more center oriented Australian Progressive Alliance separated itself.

Austria

Liberalism almost disappeared in Austria, when the Liberal Forum (Liberales Forum, member LI, ELDR) became a micro-party. Sometimes the name of the main right-wing populist party, the Freedom Party of Austria is wrongly translated as Liberal party of Austria.

Azerbaijan

Two parties might take the position of a liberal party, the Azerbaijan Liberal Party (Azərbaycan Liberal Partiyası) and the Justice Party (ədalət Partiyası).

Bahamas

The dominant party is the left of center liberal Progressive Liberal Party.

Belarus

Liberalism is under threat in Belarus. One of the main opposition parties is the liberal United Civic Party of Belarus (Abjadnanaja Hramadzianskaja Partyja Biełarusi).

Belgium

In Flanders the liberal Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten, member LI, ELDR), comprising both market and left of center liberals, is one of the dominant parties. Smaller liberal parties are Spirit, allied with the social democrats, and Vivant, allied to the VLD. In the French speaking part of the country the nowadays center liberal Reformist Movement (Mouvement Réformateur, member LI, ELDR) is one of the mayor parties. Affiliated with this party is the German speaking Party for Freedom and Progress (Partei für Freiheit und Fortschritt).

Benin

The Rebirth Party of Benin (Parti de la renaissance du Bénin), might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Liberalism is weak in this country, dominated by ethnic parties. A small and rather unsuccessful liberal party is the Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalno demokratska stranka, member ELDR). The Party for Bosnia and Hercegovina (Stranka za Bosnu i Hercegovinu) can be considered a more or less liberal party.

Brazil

Three parties name themselves liberal, but the Party of the Liberal Front (Partido da Frente Liberal) is a conservative party, member of the IDU. The Liberal party (Partido Liberal) was founded as a neoliberal party trying to apply the Austrian School, which corresponds to the common use of the word in Brazil, and the Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal) can be considered a liberal party in the US sense. The populist, centrist Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro) takes a US-sense liberal position in the spectrum.

Bulgaria

Organized liberalism was initially quite unsuccessful in Bulgaria. Liberalism is now represented by the mainly Turkish minority party Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Dviženie za prava i svobodi, observer LI, member ELDR) and the National Movement for Simeon II (Nacionalno Dviženie Simeon Vtori, member LI, ELDR), both taking a more or less liberal position.

Burkina Faso

The Alliance for Democracy and Federation (Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération), might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available.

Burma

The National Council of the Union of Burma, member CALD, is active in exile.

Cambodia

The Pak Sam Rainsy (Sam Rainsy Party, member CALD, claims to be a more or less liberal party, though some dispute this and consider it a xenophobic party.

Canada

Liberalism is traditionally organized in the Liberal Party of Canada/Parti Libéral du Canada (member LI). The Quebec Liberal Party and British Columbia Liberal Party combine liberalism with more conservative ideas.

Cape Verde

The Movement for Democracy (Movimento para a Democracia), might be considered a liberal party, but its exact profile is not available.

Chile

Originally the Social Democrat Radical Party (Partido Radical Social-Democráta, member SI) was a left of center liberal party, but nowadays it is a social democratic party.

Colombia

The liberal current developed into the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano, despite its name an active member of the SI), which is a left of center, somewhat populist party, somewhere between liberalism and social democracy.

Costa Rica

The Libertarian Movement Party (Partido Movimiento Libertario, observer LI) is a classical liberal party.

Côte d'Ivoire

The Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Republicains, member LI) is the liberal, main opposition party.

Croatia

Croatian liberalism is very divided. One could distinguish three parties: the center Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (Croatian Hrvatska narodna stranka - Liberalni Demokrati, member ELDR), the left of center Liberal Party (Liberalna stranka, member ELDR, observer LI) and the right of center Croatian Social Liberal Party (Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka, member LI, ELDR).

Cuba

Non-communist parties are banned in Cuba. This makes the three liberal parties Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democratico, observer LI), Democratic Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad Democratica, observer LI) and the Cuban Liberal Movement (Movimiento Liberal Cubano) illegal. In exile the Cuban Liberal Union (Unión Liberal Cubana, member LI) is active.

Cyprus

The United Democrats (Enomeni Dimokrates, member ELDR) are a left of center liberal party. In North Cyprus the left of center Peace and Democracy Movement (Bariş ve Demokrasi Hareketi), might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available. See also Liberalism in Cyprus.

Czech Republic

Liberalism is clearly unsuccessful in this country. Three parliamentary liberal parties work together, theCivic Democratic Alliance (Obcanska demokraticka aliance, member ELDR), the Freedom Union-Democratic Union (Unie Svobody - Demokratická unie) and the Liberal Reform Party (Liberální Reformní Strana). They were unsuccessful at the last European elections. At these elections the European Democrats (Evropští demokraté) proved to be a liberal alternative, but it joined the EPP.

Denmark

Danish liberalism is divided in two parties, the left of center social liberal Radical Left (Det Radikale Venstre, member LI, ELDR) and the right-wing market liberal Left, (Venstre Danmarks liberale parti, member LI, ELDR).

Dominican Republic

The originally left-wing Dominican Liberation Party (Partido de la Liberacíon Dominicana) developed into a center liberal party.

Ecuador

The Alfarista Radical Front (Frente Radical Alfarista) and the Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Ecuatoriana) are two small remainders of the traditional liberal current.

Egypt

The Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar) and the New Delegation Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) could be considered liberal parties.

Equatorial Guinea

The National Democratic Union of Equatorial Guinea (Unión Democratica Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, member LI) claims to be a liberal party.

Estonia

The Estonian Reform Party (Eesti Reformierakond, member LI), ELDR is a free market liberal party. The liberal character of the centrist (centre-left) Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond, member LI), ELDR) can be disputed.

Faroe Islands

The Union Party (Sambandsflokkurin) and the Self-Government Party (Sjálvstýrisflokkurin) were or are aligned with the Danish liberal parties.

Finland

The dominant LI and ELDR member party is the original agrarian Finnish Center (Suomen Keskusta), however the liberal character of this party is disputed. The Swedish minority party Swedish People's Party (Svenska Folkpartiet i Finland, member LI, ELDR) has a more clear liberal profile. The original liberal current is now organized in the Liberals (Liberaalit), a very small extra-parliamentary party. At the autonomous island of Åland the Liberals for Åland (Liberalerna på Åland, observer LI) are a dominant force.

France

The original liberal current in France disappeared and market liberalism is now represented in the conservative Union for a Popular Movement. The originally left of center radical liberal party split up in the right of center liberal Radical Party (Parti Radical) and the left of center social liberal Left Radical Party (Parti Radical de Gauche).

Gambia

United Democratic Party, might be considered a liberal party, but it exact profile is not available.

Georgia

The National Movement - Democrats (Natshhionakhuri Modraoba - Demokrathebi) has to develop a clear profile, but there are signs it will develop into a liberal party.

Germany

The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, member LI, ELDR) is a center and market liberal party.

Ghana

The New Patriotic Party is a right of center liberal party that is unclear about its international affiliations.

Gibraltar

The Liberal Party of Gibraltar (member LI) is a liberal party.

Greenland

The Feeling of Community Party (Atássut) is a right of center liberal party, as are the Democrats.

Grenada

The National Democratic Congress is a center liberal party.

Honduras

The Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras, member LI) is the traditional center liberal party.

Hong Kong

The Democratic Party is a liberal party, strongly emphasizing the need of democratic reforms. The Liberal Party is often considered to be the business party, not open for democratic reforms.

Hungary

The Alliance of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokratak Szövetsege, member LI), ELDR) is a center market liberal party.

Iceland

The Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn, member LI) is an agrarian liberal party. The newly found Liberal Party (Frjáslyndi Flokkurin) seems to be a liberal party.

Ireland

The Progressive Democrats (member ELDR) are a liberal party on social and economic issues.

Israel

Shinui (שינוי, in English Change, member LI) is a strongly anti-clerical, market liberal party.

Italy

Liberalism got strongly divided after the shake up of Italian politics. Liberals are now divided over the center liberal Italy of Values-List Di Pietro (Italia dei Valori - Lista Di Pietro, member LI), ELDR, the left of center Daisy (La Margherita, a merger of liberal and Christian-democratic forces, so it includes both liberals and Christian democrats), the left of center European Republican Movement (Movimento Repubblicani Europei, member ELDR), the old - nowadays right of center - Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano, member ELDR) and the alternative liberal Italian Radicals or Lista Bonino (Radicali Italiani, member ELDR).

Japan

The word liberal is used in Japan by the main conservative party, the Liberal Democratic Party (Jiyu Minshuto). The Democratic Party (Minshu-to) is a left of center liberal, social democratic party. The liberal character of the Liberal League (Jiyu Rengo) is disputed, it is also considered to be conservative party.

Kenya

The Liberal Democratic Party could be considered a liberal party.

Korea, South

The Millennium Democratic Party (Saecheonnyeonminju Dang) and the Our Party (Yeollin Uri Dang) are left of center liberal parties.

Latvia

The Latvian Way (Latvian Way, member LI, ELDR) is a right of center market liberal party.

Lebanon

The National Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar al-Watani) is a liberal pro-independence (from Syria) party.

Lithuania

The Liberal and Centre Union (Liberalų ir centro sąjunga, member LI), ELDR) is a center liberal party and the New Union Social Liberals (Naujoji Sąjunga (socialliberalai), observer LI), member ELDR) is a left of center liberal party.

Luxembourg

The Democratic Party (Demokratesch Partei//Parti Démocratique, member LI, ELDR) is the traditional liberal party.

Macedonia

The liberals are divided over the Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalna Demokraticka Partija, member LI), part of the left of center government coalition and the Liberal Party of Macedonia (Liberalna Partija na Makedonija, member ELDR), part of the right of center opposition coalition.

Malawi

The liberal character of the United Democratic Front is despite its membership of the LI disputable. The Democratic Progressive Party was formed in 2005 by President Bingu wa Mutharika after a dispute with the UDF. There were allegations that members of the former governing UDF did not adequately tackle corruption. It is unclear if the party will be ideological or personalist in style.

Malaysia

The Malaysian People's Movement Party (Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, member CALD) seems to be a more or less liberal party.

Morocco

Two center-right parties, the Constitutional Union (Union Constitutionnelle) and the Popular Movement (Mouvement Populaire) are both member of the LI.

Moldova

Liberalism in Moldova is divided over the social liberal Party Alliance Our Moldova (Partidul Alianţa «Moldova Noastră»), a merger of liberal and social democrat forces and the market liberal Social Liberal Party (Partidul Social-Liberal).

Mozambique

The Liberal Democratic Party of Mozambique (Partido Liberal e Democrático de Moçambique) and the Social Liberal and Democratic Party (Partido Social-Liberal e Democrático) claim to be liberal parties.

Netherlands

Liberalism is divided over two parties in the Netherlands, the left of center liberal Democrats 66 (Democraten 66, member LI, ELDR) and the right of center market liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, member LI, ELDR). Furthermore, in 2004, the Green Left started profiling itself as a 'leftist liberal' party, thus possibly breaking with its socialist roots.

New Zealand

Liberalism in New Zealand is not organized anymore. The left of center New Zealand Democratic Party takes a more or less progressive liberal position in the spectrum. ACT New Zealand is a classical liberal or libertarian party.

Nicaragua

The liberal character of the right-wing Liberal Constitutional Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, member LI) is disputable.

Norway

The Left (Norway) (Venstre, member LI) is a centrist liberal party.

Panama

National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacional), observer LI is a right of center liberal party, as is the Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (Partido Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista).

Paraguay

The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico, member LI) is a left of center liberal party.

Peru

The Popular Action (Acción Popular) and the Union for Peru (Unión por el Perú) are more or less liberal parties.

Philippines

The Liberal Party, member LI, CALD) is a center liberal party.

Poland

The Freedom Union (Unia Wolności, member ELDR) is a center liberal party. The Platforma Obywatelska is economically liberal.

Puerto Rico

The Popular Democratic Party (Partido Popular Democrático) is a left of center liberal party.

Romania

The National Liberal Party (Partidul Naţional Libera, member LI), ELDR) is a center liberal party.

Russia

The Apple Russian Democratic Party (Jabloko - Rossijskaja Demokratičeskaja Partija, member LI) is a left of center liberal party, the Union of Right Forces (Sojuz Pravych Sil, member IDU) is a right of center liberal party. This last party can also be seen as a democratic conservative market party.

San Marino

Popular Alliance of Sammarinese Democrats for the Republic (Alleanza Popolare dei Democratici Sammarinesi per la Repubblica) is a center liberal party.

Senegal

The Senegalese Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Sénégalais, member LI) is a liberal party with a strong personalist character.

Serbia and Montenegro

Liberalism is divided in Serbia. The small centrist Civic Alliance of Serbia (Graðanski Savez Srbije) has a clear liberal profile. The right of center Democratic Party (Demokratska Stranka) officially aligned itself with the European social democrats and the G17 Plus is somewhere between liberalism and conservatism. The liberal character of the Liberals of Serbia (Liberali Srbije, observer LI, member ELDR) is disputed due to their campaign for the last elections, in which it lost parliamentary representation. The Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (Liberalni Savez Crne Gore), member LI) is more or less a liberal party.

Seychelles

The Seychelles National Party (observer LI) is a liberal party.

Singapore

Due to the electoral system the liberal Singapore Democratic Party (member CALD) is not represented in parliament. The less intransigent liberal Singapore People's Party is represented in parliament.

Slovakia

The Alliance of the New Citizen (Aliancia Nového Občana, observer LI, member ELDR) is a right of center market liberal party.

Slovenia

The Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, member LI, ELDR) is a left of center liberal party.

Solomon Islands

The Solomon Islands Liberal Party considers itself a liberal party.

South Africa

The Democratic Alliance (member LI) is a liberal party.

Spain

The Canarian Coalition (Coalición Canaria) and the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (Convergència Democrática de Catalunya) are regionalist liberal parties.

Suriname

The Democratic Alternative '91 (Democratisch Alternatief '91) is a center liberal party.

Sweden

The People's Party - Liberals (Folkpartiet Liberalerna, member LI), ELDR) is a center liberal party. The Center Party (Centerpartiet, member ELDR) is an agrarian party that gradually might develop into a more or less liberal party. The liberal character is however disputed.

Switzerland

Both the Free Democratic Party of Switzerland (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz//Parti Radical-Démocratique Suisse, member LI), ELDR and the Liberal Party of Switzerland (Liberale Partei der Schweiz//Parti Libéral Suisse, member LI) are right of center liberal parties.

Taiwan

The Democratic Progressive Party (Min-chu Chin-pu Tang, member LI, CALD) is a left of center liberal party. The Taiwan Solidarity Union is a progressive centrist party characterised primarily by its Taiwanese nationalism and derives is membership from both the Chinese Nationalist Party's former moderate and Taiwan-oriented fringe and DPP supporters disgruntled by the party's moderation on the question of Taiwanese sovereignty. Its liberal character is questionable, although it its part of the DPP's left-of-centre and Taiwan-oriented Pan-Green alliance (in contrast with the far-right and China-oriented Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and People First Party.

Tanzania

The Civic United Front (Chama Cha Wananchi), member LI) and the United Democratic Party, observer LI) are liberal parties.

Thailand

The Democratic Party (Pak Prachatipat, member CALD) is a more or less liberal party.

Tunisia

The Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral, observer LI) is a more or less liberal party.

Ukraine

The position of liberalism is unclear. The Liberal Party (Liberalna Partia, observer LI) is a small liberal party and the Electoral Blok Juli Tymoshenko (Viborcyj Blok Julii Tymošenko) seems to develop into a more or less liberal party. A clear liberal party is the Our Ukraine (Naša Ukrajina), which should be distinguished from the People's Union Our Ukraine.

United Kingdom

British liberalism is now organized mainly in the left/right (depending on the issue) of center liberal Liberal Democrats (member LI, ELDR). The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (member LI, ELDR) is their counterpart in Northern Ireland.

There is a small splinter group of the Liberal Democrats, the Liberal Party, which consists of those Liberals who objected to the merger of the old Liberal Party to the centrist Social Democrats in 1988, which is sporadically active in local government.

United States

The Democratic Party is identified as the liberal party within the broader definition of liberalism. The Libertarian Party, possibly the third largest political party in the United States, particularly centers itself on free markets and individual liberty.

See Libertarianism vs. classical liberalism for a discussion on the relation between libertarianism and liberalism.

Uruguay

Liberalism in Uruguay organized itself in the nineteenth century in the Colorado (or Red) Party, (Partido Colorado) nowadays an heterogonous party, divided in factions ranging from conservatism to social democracy. Its general profile is more or less liberal.

Zambia

The main opposition party, the United Party for National Development (observer LI) takes a liberal position in the political spectrum.

Zimbabwe

Liberalism is not organized in Zimbabwe, but the left-leaning opposition Movement for Democratic Change includes liberals and social democrats opposed to the heavy-handed Maoism and social conservatism of dictator Robert Mugabe.

Non-parliamentary parties

External links

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