M14 (rifle)

From Academic Kids

Template:Weapon-firearm


For other uses of M14, see M14.

The M14 is an American select-fire battle rifle firing 7.62x51 mm NATO ammunition largely superseded in military use by the M16.

Contents

History

It was derived from the M1 Garand and engineered by John Garand. The rifle was adopted by the U.S. Military in 1957. When the M14 arrived in Vietnam in 1965 with the US Marine Corps, it was quickly found to be no better than the Garand in combat. The long length meant that it was difficult to carry in the bush, and the heavy weight made it difficult to quickly swing into action in meeting engagements. The heavy ammunition also meant that the troops could carry only relatively small amounts on patrols, and often found themselves being outgunned by the ever-increasing number of AK47's being used against them. The M14 remained the primary infantry weapon in Vietnam until the much lighter M16 replaced it in 1967-68. The M14 is still in use in small numbers with Special Forces units, Police sharpshooters, on Navy ships for security purposes, and in prisons.

The M14 is still used as a sniper rifle and/or a designated marksman rifle in some armies, due to its excellent accuracy. In the US military it was replaced by the M16 assault rifle and by the M21 (a derivative of the M-14) and M24 SWS sniper rifles. The M14 was the final U.S. military shoulder weapon developed and produced by Springfield Armory which closed in 1968.

The commercial, semi-automatic only version available to the general public is sold by Springfield Armory, Inc. of Geneseo, IL and other manufacturers as the M1A, M14S, and other model names.

Production

Standard service rifles were produced from 1959-1964.

  • United States Armory, Springfield, MA
  • Harrington & Richardson Arms Co., Worcester, MA
  • Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.(Winchester-Western Div.), New Haven, CT
  • Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Inc.(TRW), Cleveland, OH

Purpose-built National Match versions were produced from 1962-63 by Springfield Armory, and in 1964 by TRW. Springfield Armory upgraded a number of service rifles in 1965 and 1966 to National Match specifications. Upgrading for 1967 was carried out at U.S. Arsenal, Rock Island, IL.

Variants and related designs

M14A1

  • Selective fire version of the standard M14 used as a Squad Automatic Weapon.
  • Successor to the short-lived M15 Rifle. The developmental model was known as the XM14E2. ("X", for experimental, E2 for the addition of a pistol grip stock).
  • First designated as M14E2 when it was issued in 1963 and redesignated as M14A1 in 1966.

M14K

A rifle produced by Smith Enterprises of Arizona, United States. A late 1980s modification of the M14A1 with the gas operating system of the M60 machine gun. The prototype actually used the M60 machine gun parts, production models had the system custom-manufactured so the rate of fire could be controlled.

Types of sights

  • Rear peep, front blade, metric
  • Rear National Match peep with hood, front National Match blade, metric


Rifle Design

Markings

Missing image
M14rifle-markings.jpg
US Army photo of M-14 rifle variants

Receiver

Stamped into receiver heel:

    • U.S. Rifle
    • 7.62-MM M14
    • Springfield Armory (or commercial contractor name)
    • serial number

Stock

The M14 rifle was first furnished with a walnut stock, then with birch and finally with a synthetic stock. Original equipment walnut and birch stocks carry the Department of Defense acceptance stamp (arc of three stars above a spread-winged eagle). These stocks also carried a proof stamp, a P within a circle, applied after succesful test-firing.

Accessories

  • M6 Bayonet with M8A1 sheath
  • Bandolier
  • National Match sling
  • Combination Tool
  • Cleaning equipment
  • Winter safety
  • Winter trigger
  • Magazine filler
  • Model 1961 ammunition magazine pocket
  • M2 Bipod
  • Grenade launcher
  • Grenade launcher sight

External links

  • Gov't M-14 Petition (http://www.petitiononline.com/M14CMP03/) (Petition for and demilitarization and sale to civilians of to-be-scrapped M-14 rifles)

See also

pl:Karabin M14 sv:M14

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