Nucleotide

From Academic Kids

Nucleotide codes
Code Equivalence Complement
A A T or U
C C G
G G C
T or U T A
M A or C K
R A or G Y
W A or T W
S C or G S
Y C or T R
K G or T M
V A or C or G B
H A or C or T D
D A or G or T H
B C or G or T V
X or N A or C or G or T X

A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. Nucleotides also play important roles in cellular energy transport and transformations (notably ATP and NAD+/NADH), and in enzyme regulation (see for example, protein kinase).

The nucleobase can be purines or pyrimidines, the sugar can be deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA, and the phosphate chain can be a monophosphate, diphosphate, or triphosphate. A nucleotide that lacks the phosphate group is called nucleoside.

Contents

Nomenclature

Nucleotide names are abbreviated into standard four-letter codes. The first letter is lower case and indicates whether the nucleotide in question is a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d). The second letter indicates the nucleobase:

G: Guanine
A: Adenine
T: Thymine
C: Cytosine
U: Uracil not present in DNA, but takes the place of Thymine in RNA

The third and fourth letters indicate the length of the attached phosphate chain (Mono-, Di-, Tri-) and the presence of a phosphate (P).

For example, deoxy-cytosine-triphosphate is abbreviated as dCTP.

Chemical structures

Nucleotides

Missing image
AMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of adenosine monophosphate


Adenosine monophosphate
AMP
Missing image
ADP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of adenosine diphosphate


Adenosine diphosphate
ADP
Missing image
ATP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of adenosine triphosphate


Adenosine triphosphate
ATP
Missing image
GMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of guanosine monophosphate


Guanosine monophosphate
GMP
Missing image
GDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of guanosine diphosphate


Guanosine diphosphate
GDP
Missing image
GTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of guanosine triphosphate


Guanosine triphosphate
GTP
Missing image
TMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of thymidine monophosphate


Thymidine monophosphate
TMP
Missing image
TDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of thymidine diphosphate


Thymidine diphosphate
TDP
Missing image
TTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of thymidine triphosphate


Thymidine triphosphate
TTP
Missing image
UMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of uridine monophosphate


Uridine monophosphate
UMP
Missing image
UDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of uridine diphosphate


Uridine diphosphate
UDP
Missing image
UTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of uridine triphosphate


Uridine triphosphate
UTP
Missing image
CMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of cytidine monophosphate


Cytidine monophosphate
CMP
Missing image
CDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of cytidine diphosphate


Cytidine diphosphate
CDP
Missing image
CTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of cytidine triphosphate


Cytidine triphosphate
CTP

Deoxynucleotides

Missing image
DAMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine monophosphate


Deoxyadenosine monophosphate
dAMP
Missing image
DADP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine diphosphate


Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
dADP
Missing image
DATP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine triphosphate


Deoxyadenosine triphosphate
dATP
Missing image
DGMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine monophosphate


Deoxyguanosine monophosphate
dGMP
Missing image
DGDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine diphosphate


Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
dGDP
Missing image
DGTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine triphosphate


Deoxyguanosine triphosphate
dGTP
Missing image
DTMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine monophosphate


Deoxythymidine monophosphate
dTMP
Missing image
DTDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine diphosphate


Deoxythymidine diphosphate
dTDP
Missing image
DTTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxythymidine triphosphate


Deoxythymidine triphosphate
dTTP
Missing image
DUMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine monophosphate


Deoxyuridine monophosphate
dUMP
Missing image
DUDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine diphosphate


Deoxyuridine diphosphate
dUDP
Missing image
DUTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine triphosphate


Deoxyuridine triphosphate
dUTP
Missing image
DCMP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine monophosphate


Deoxycytidine monophosphate
dCMP
Missing image
DCDP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine diphosphate


Deoxycytidine diphosphate
dCDP
Missing image
DCTP_chemical_structure.png
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine triphosphate


Deoxycytidine triphosphate
dCTP

See also

External links

Template:Nucleic acids

ca:Nucletid de:Nukleotid es:Nucletido fr:Nuclotide nl:Nucleotide ja:ヌクレオチド pl:Nukleotyd pt:Nucletido sv:Nukleotid

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