O-yatoi gaikokujin

From Academic Kids

The o-yatoi gaikokujin or oyatoi gaikokujin (お雇い外国人 — hired foreigners, foreign employees) were foreign specialists, engineers, teachers, mercenaries and more, hired to assist in the modernization of Japan. They were summoned, at the end of the Bakufu and during the Meiji Era, reaching more than 3,000 in all (with thousands more in the private sector) as of 1868.

Their goal was to transfer technology and teach Japanese replacements to take over their places. Some, in addition to being government employees, were also missionaries. They were highly valued; in 1874 the oyatoi numbered 520, during which time their salaries came to 2.272 million, or 33.7 percent of the annual budget. Despite their value, they were not allowed to stay in Japan permanently, and many, finding the nation unwelcoming, chose to leave at the end of a one or two year contract.

The oyatoi system was officially terminated in 1899 when extraterritoriality came to an end in Japan. Nevertheless similar employment of foreigners persists in Japan, particularly within the national education system and professional baseball. Until 1899, more than 800 hired experts were employed by the government, and many others privately.

There has been some discussion as to the exact definition of 'o-yatoi gaikokujin' and whether Basil Hall Chamberlain was one. See Category talk:O-yatoi gaikokujin.

Contents

Notable o-yatoi gaikokujin

Medical Science

Law, Administration and Economics


Military


Natural Science and mathematics

Engineering

Art and Music

Liberal Arts, Humanities and Education

Missionaries


Others

See also

External links

Template:Japan-stubde:O-yatoi gaikokujin ja:お雇い外国人

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