Qom

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Howzeh Feyzieh. Qom is the seat of Iran's largest seminary and theological center.
Qom, Qum or Kum (قم in Persian) is a city in Iran. It is the center of the Qom Province, with a population of 780,000.

The city is one of the holy cities for Shi'ite Muslims, as it is the site of the shrine of Hazrat Fatima Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza (789-816AD). The city is home to Iran's largest seminary, competing only with Najaf in Iraq.

Contents

History

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Gonbad e Sabz, one of 195 attractions listed by Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization.

Qom is said to have existed in the pre-Islamic ages. Architectural discoveries indicate that Qom was a residential area from the 5th millennium B.C. According to the pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts, Qom was a large city. 'Kom' was the name of the ancient rampart of the city of Qom, thus, the Arabs called it Qom during the Arab conquests of Iran.

It was during the reign of the second caliph Omar, that Qom's center was captured by the Muslims. In the year 23-24 AH on the Islamic Lunar calendar, Abu Moosa Ashari, dispatched forces under his command to Qom. Conflicts arose between the invading Arabs and the residents of the area.

During the persecution of the Alavids by the Abbasids and Umayyads, many Alavids fled to Qom, making it their permanent home. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sent forces to Qom in the year 210 AH, resulting in a public massacre and destruction of the city.

On hearing of the demise of Al-Ma'mun, the inhabitants of Qom revolted and were successful in overthrowing the representative of the Caliph in 216 AH. However Al-Ma'mun's successor, Al-Mu'tasim, dispatched forces to Qom in order to curb the riots and once again the city was set aflame. The unrest continued until the Buwayhid dynasty (Al e Booyeh in Persian) came to power, being of the Alavid community. It was during this reign that the city of Qom expanded and thrived.

In the Saljuqi era the city flourished too. During the Mongol invasion the city witnessed destruction, but after Mongol rulers, particularly after Sultan ljeit Khoda bandeh of the Ilkhanate dynasty converted to Islam, the city received special attention, thus witnessing a revival once more.

In the late 14th century, the city came under the plunder of Tamerlane when the inhabitants were massacred again. During the periods of the rule of the 'Qarah Qoyoonloo', 'Aq Qoyoonloo', and specially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed.

By 909 AH., Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shiite Islam, and became a vital pilgrimage site and religious pivot.

During the Afghan invasion, the city of Qom suffered heavy damages, and its inhabitants witnessed severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damages during the reigns of Nadir Shah, and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajar in order to gain power in Iran.

In 1208 AH., Qom came under the control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar . On being victorious over his enemies, Fath Ali Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh (AS), as he had made such a vow.

The city of Qom thrived in the Qajar era. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom. The transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was discussed. But the British and Russians demolished the plan by bringing the monarch of the times, Ahmad Shah Qajar under pressure. Coinciding with this period, a 'National Defense Committee' was set up, and Qom turned into a political and military apex against the Russian and British colonial powers.

Qom was also the center from which Ayatollah Khomeini based his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty, while in Iran. For many years, Qom was the home of Ayatollah Khomeini who led Iran from Qom for a while after the Islamic revolution in 1979 before permanently leaving for Tehran.

Qom today

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The Grand Timcheh of Qom's Bazaar.

Today, Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiite sect both in Iran and round the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom province. Another religious site of pilgrimage is outside the city of Qom, and is called Jamkaran.

Qom's proximity to Tehran has given it an advantage as well.

Attractions of Qom

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. But the more visited sites of Qom are:

  • Kahak cave
  • Vashnuh cave
  • Howz e Soltan Salt Lake
  • Namak Great Salt Lake
  • Mar'ashi Najafi Library, with over 500,000 handwritten texts and copies.
  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum
  • Qom Bazaar
  • Feyzieh Seminary
  • Jamkaran Mosque
  • Qom Jame' Mosque
  • Qom Atiq Mosque
  • A'zam Mosque
  • Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh

Universities in Qom

Seminaries of Qom

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Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, one of Iran's holiest places, is in Qom, where it has attracted to itself dozens of seminaries and religious schools.

Qom is currently the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world. The following seminaries (Hawzahs) are located there:

  • Amuliyah Seminary
  • Ayatollah Golpayegani Seminary
  • Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Seminary
  • Abul-Sadigh Seminary
  • Imam al-Husayn Seminary
  • Imam al-Askari Seminary
  • Imam al-Mahdi Seminary
  • Imam al-Hadi Seminary
  • Rasul ul-A'dham Seminary
  • Sayyed Hasan al-Shirazi Seminary
  • Alwandiyah Seminary
  • Imam al-Khamenei Seminary
  • Imam al-Baqir Seminary
  • Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba Seminary
  • Imam Khomeini Seminary
  • Imam al-Sadiq Seminary
  • Imam al-Hadi Seminary
  • Amir al-Momineen Seminary
  • Bi'that Seminary
  • Jabir ibn al-Hayyan Seminary
  • Al-Zahra Seminary
  • Jafariyah Seminary
  • Haj Sayyed Sadiq Seminary
  • Haj Ghazanfar Seminary
  • Hojattiyeh Seminary
  • Hossayniah Seminary
  • Hadhrat al-Masoumah Seminary
  • Dar al-Shifa Seminary
  • Rasul al-Akram Seminary
  • Sa'adat Seminary
  • Sharafiddin Amili Seminary
  • Shahabiyah Seminary
  • Shahid Sadr Seminary
  • Shahidayn Seminary
  • Sadiqqiyah Seminary
  • Saduq Seminary
  • Seminary of The Judiciary
  • Alavi Seminary
  • Fatimiyah Seminary
  • Feyziah Seminary (http://hawzah.net)
  • Qadiriyah Seminary
  • Kermani ha Seminary
  • Ma'soumiyah Seminary
  • Mahdi Mow'ud Seminary
  • Na'ini Seminary
  • Wahidiyah Seminary
  • Wali Asr Seminary
  • Al-alam Seminary
  • Al-dirasat al-Islamiyah Seminary
  • Maktab al-mahdi Seminary
  • Maktab al-Towhid Seminary
  • al-Kawthar Seminary (http://www.hawzah.com/)

Listing of Qom's Senior ranking clerics

The following is a list of Grand Ayatollahs and the most senior ranking Ayatollahs in or directly related to Qom.

Current

Deceased

See also

Other external links about Qom

Religiously affiliated

Non-Religiously affiliated

it:Qom nl:Qom ja:コム (都市)

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