From Academic Kids

TOKYOPOP, formerly known as Mixx, is a distributor of many very popular manga in the United States, headquartered in Los Angeles, California. TOKYOPOP also publishes and licenses manhwa, anime, and novels, as well as the Cine-Manga (another term for "animanga") line of graphic novels using still shots taken from children's television shows and movies (both live-action and animated).

TOKYOPOP sells both traditional Japanese style manga as well as Western book style in local bookstores across the U.S.

In summer 2004, TOKYOPOP founded its first foreign branch in Germany, headquartered in Hamburg. The first manga and manhwa by TOKYOPOP Germany were published in November 2004, the first anime have been announced for late summer 2005.

TOKYOPOP, back when it was known as Mixx, sold MixxZine, a manga magazine. Mixx also sold the shōjo anthology SMILE. Mixxzine later became TOKYOPOP magazine before it was discontinued. TOKYOPOP has plans to start another magazine about manga that isn't a manga anthology named Takuhai.

TOKYOPOP also distributes some of that manga to Australia and New Zealand through Madman Entertainment.


Success and Criticism

Many people in the industry credit TOKYOPOP for transforming the American manga market to its current state of popularity. The company achieved this by first lowering the price of their manga to a consistent price point of about 10$ (US) per volume. They achieved this by not translating sound effects (which required much touching up of the original art), and not flipping the pages like is done in most English manga editions. The lower price point was also more appealing to bookstores, because lower prices meant better sales. Other manga companies, such as Viz Media have restructured and lowered their prices as a response to this move.

In addition to lowering prices of manga, the company licensed a wider variety of titles than other companies had previously. While most translators had concentrated on shōnen (boys') manga and titles thought to have "crossover" potential with the male-dominated American comics market, Tokyopop's lineup included many shōjo titles that appealed to teenage girls who were not well served by the domestic comics market. The company also eschewed the so-called "direct market" of comic book stores, many of which specialized primarily in superhero titles and had a reputation of being "boy's clubs" uninviting or hostile to casual readers, opting instead to concentrate on sales through bookstores. As a result, the manga section in most mainstream bookstores has increased exponentially.

The company has been criticized by most notably Toren Smith of the competing company Studio Proteus, in a piece published as part of an analysis of the American manga translation industry in The Comics Journal. The critics' main charges are that Tokyopop's quality control is poor and frequently fails to catch typos and other rudimentary errors before books go to print, and that its approach to licensing titles from Japan stresses quantity over quality. Some feel that this would eventually lead to a bubble in the manga industry unless something was done to make the comics less disposable. Additionally, the practice of not flipping pages has been criticized; critics assert that, as the English language is typically read from left to right, printing manga in right-to-left format results in pages that do not flow well to English readers.

Tokyopop has also been criticized by anime fans with regards to changes in music and the naming of characters in their published anime. Critics charge that these changes compromise the anime viewing experience, watering down and Americanizing it and making it less "authentic".

Manga published in English by TOKYOPOP

Manhwa published in English by TOKYOPOP

Manhua published by TOKYOPOP

U.S.., Canadian, and British-made manga produced by TOKYOPOP

Anime licensed in English by TOKYOPOP

Cine-Manga in English from TOKYOPOP

Novels licensed in English by TOKYOPOP

Picture books licensed in English by TOKYOPOP

External links


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