Royal and noble ranks

From Academic Kids

Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke), the following is a fairly comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.

1) Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule.
2) The term Peer is used in Britain, but the division could be argued to be of general value.
3) Dukes who are not actually or formerly sovereign, such as all British, French, and Spanish dukes, or who are not sons of sovereigns, as titulary dukes in many other countries, would not be considered to be of princely rank.

In Germany, the actual rank of the holder of a title is, however, dependent on not only the title as such, but on for instance the degree of sovereignty and on the rank of the lord of the title-holder. But also such matters as the age of the princely dynasty play a role (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any sovereign ruler would be higher than any formerly sovereign, i.e. mediatized, family of any rank (thus, the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, mediatized). Members of a formerly sovereign house ranked higher than the regular nobility. Among the regular nobility, those whose titles derived from the Holy Roman Empire ranked higher than those whose titles were granted by one of the German princes after 1806, no matter what title was held.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918. [1] (http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/taweb-cgi/taweb?x=d&o=d&v=bnd&d=BND&i=13944)

In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 abolished nobility and all nobility titles. They are now merely part of the family name, and there is no more right to the traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "Durchlaucht"). The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld.

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.

Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various European countries. See Royal and noble styles to learn how to properly address holders of these titles.

English French Italian Spanish German Dutch Norwegian Swedish Finnish Polish¹ Russian Danish Greek Portuguese
Emperor,
Empress
Empereur,
Imperatrice
Imperatore,
Imperatrice
Emperador,
Emperatriz
Kaiser,
Kaiserin
Keizer,
Keizerin
Keiser,
Keiserinne
Kejsare,
Kejsarinna
  Cesarz,
Cesarzowa
Tsar,
Tsaritsa
Kejser,
Kejserinde
Aftokratoras,
Aftokratira
Imperador,
Imperatriz
King,
Queen
Roi,
Reine
Re,
Regina
Rey,
Reina
König,
Königin
Koning,
Koningin
Kong,
Dronning
Kung,
Drottning
Kuningas,
Kuningatar4
Król,
Królowa
  Konge
Dronning
Vasilias/Rigas,
Vasilissa
Rei,
Rainha
Viceroy,
Vicereine
Viceroi,
Vicereine
Vicere',
Viregina
Virrey,
Virreina
Vizekönig,
Vizekönigin
Onderkoning,
Onderkoningin
Vizekong,
Vizedronning
Vizekung,
Vizedrottning
      Vizekonge
Vizedronning
  Virei,
Virainha
Archduke,
Archduchess
      Erzherzog,
Erzherzogin
Aartshertog,
Aartshertogin 
               
Grand Duke,
Grand Duchess
Grand Duc,
Grande Duchesse
Granduca,
Granduchessa
  Großherzog,
Großherzogin
Groothertog,
Groothertogin
Storhertug,
Storhertuginne
  Suuriruhtinas,
Suuriruhtinatar4
Wielki Książę,
Wielka Księżna
Veliky Kniaz N/A
Megas-Doukas Grão-Duque,
Grã-Duquesa
Duke,
Duchess
Duc,
Duchesse
Duca,
Duchessa
Duque,
Duquesa
Herzog,
Herzogin
Hertog,
Hertogin
Hertug, Hertuginne Hertig Herttua,
Herttuatar4
Książę,
Księżna
Kniaz5 Hertug
Hertuginde
Doukas
Doukissa
Duque,
Duquesa
Prince²,
Princess
Prince²,
Princesse
Principe²,
Principessa
Príncipe²,
Princesa
Fürst,
Fürstin
Prins,
Prinses
Prins,
Prinsesse
Furste4 Ruhtinas,
Ruhtinatar4
Fyrste
Fyrstinde
Prinkipas,
Pringkipissa
Príncipe,
Princesa
Marquess,
Marchioness
Marquis,
Marquise
Marchese,
Marchesa
Marqués,
Marquesa
Markgraf³,
Markgräfin
Markies/Markgraaf,
Markiezin/Markgravin
Marki Markis4 Markiisi4 Markiz,
Markiza
Boyar5 Marki
?
Markpsios,
Markpsia
Marquês,
Marquesa
Earl / Count,
Countess
Comte,
Comtesse
Conte,
Contessa
Conde,
Condesa
Graf,
Gräfin
Graaf,
Gravin
Jarl / Greve,
Grevinne
Greve Kreivi,
Kreivitär4
Hrabia,
Hrabina
Graf,
Grafinia5
Greve
Grevinde
Komes,
Komissa
Conde,
Condessa
Viscount,
Viscountess
Vicomte,
Vicomtesse
Visconte,
Viscontessa
Vizconde,
Vizcondesa
Vizegraf,
Vizegräfin
Burggraaf,
Burggravin
Vikomte,
Visegrevinne
    Wicehrabia,
Wicehrabina
  Vicegreve
Vicegrevinde
Epikomes,
Epikomissa
Visconde,
Viscondessa
Baron,
Baroness
Baron,
Baronne
Barone,
Baronessa
Barón,
Baronesa
Freiherr,
Freifrau
Baron,
Barones(se)
Baron,
Baronesse
Friherre Vapaaherra,
Vapaaherratar4
Baron,
Baronowa
  Baron
Baronesse
Varonos,
Varona
Barão,
Baronesa
Baronet6 Baronnet Baronetto                 N/A  
Knight6 Chevalier Cavaliere Caballero Ritter Ridder Ridder Riddare4 Ritari4 Rycerz   Ridder Stratiotes Cavaleiro
Notes:
1) Due to the prinicple of nobles' equality, any aristocratic titles below that of prince were not allowed in Poland (see szlachta). The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions.
2) Prince/principe can also be a title of the junior members of royal houses (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish). In the British system, Prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the Royal Family
.
3) In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf.
4) No titles were granted after 1906 when unicameral assembly (Eduskunta) was established
5) For domestic Russian nobility only the two titles Kniaz and Boyar were used before the 18th century wehen Graf was added.
6) Not counted as nobility in the British system.

Related articles

de:Adelstitel pl:Tytuły szlacheckie pt:Título nobiliárquico sl:Plemiški nazivi

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