Sherif Hussein ibn Ali

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Sherif Hussein ibn Ali

Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. He ruled until 1924, when he was defeated by Abdul Aziz al Saud.

Hussein ibn Ali was the last of the Hashemite rulers over the Hijaz to be appointed by the Ottoman Empire. In 1924, after his abdication, his son 'Ali briefly assumed the throne, but then he too had to flee the encroachment of Ibn Saud and his Wahhabi forces (Saudi Ikhwan). During World War I, Hussein was initially allied with the Ottomans and Germany, but was convinced by an exchange of letters with the British High Commissioner McMahon that his assistance on the side of the Triple Entente would be rewarded by an Arab empire encompassing the entire span between Egypt and Persia, with the exception of imperial possesions and interests in Kuwait, Aden, and the Syrian coast. Hussein was the official leader in the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans. In the aftermath of the war, the Arabs found themselves freed from the Ottomans but placed under the hypocritical " Mandate" system, of France and the United Kingdom, in which the "liberty" of the inhabitants would be guaranteed by their occupation by European imperial powers. The sons of Hussein were made the kings of Jordan, Syria and Iraq. However, the monarchy in Syria was abruptly ended when the French were given control over the nation (resulting in much resistance and bloodshed), so his son (Faisal) was installed in Iraq instead.

When Hussein declared himself king of the Hejaz, he also declared himself king of all Arabs (malik bilad-al-arab). This aggravated his conflict with Ibn Saud, with whom he had fought before WWI on the side of the Ottomans in 1910. and Saud defeated Hussein in 1924. Though the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, they elected not to help Hussein repel the Saudi attack, which eventually took Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah (Much to the relief of the citizens, who had grown weary of Hussein's unsuccessful rule). He was then forced to flee to Cyprus. He went to live in Amman, Jordan, where his son Abdullah was king. Hussein died there in 1931. His son Faisal was made King of ibn Ali (Hedschas) id:Syarif Husain nl:Hoessein ibn Ali ja:シャリーフ・フサイン・ビン=アリー


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