Upton Sinclair

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American author Upton Beall Sinclair (September 20, 1878November 25, 1968) wrote in many genres, often advocating Socialist views, and achieved considerable popularity in the early twentieth century. He gained particular fame for his novel, The Jungle (1906), which dealt with conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry and caused a public uproar that ultimately led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act in 1906.


Family Background

His parents came from the Southern gentry, and his father's family had a distinguished naval tradition stretching back to the American Revolution. His great-grandfather, Commodore Arthur Sinclair (died 1831), served in the War of 1812. His grandfather, Captain Arthur Sinclair, served first in the United States Navy then resigned to join the Confederate service.

Childhood and Education

The family fortunes had suffered after the Civil War, and so Upton Sinclair had an unusual upbringing that mixed wealth and poverty. His father was an alcoholic and his immediate family was poor, but he often stayed with his wealthy maternal relatives in New York, allowing him to experience two extremes of American society which later influenced his socialist views.

To pay his way through City College of New York, Sinclair wrote jokes and fiction for magazines and newspapers, as well as dime novels for the firm of Street & Smith. He also attended graduate school at Columbia.

Artistic Output

From late 1931-1933, Sinclair was principally preoccupied with efforts to get the film Que Viva Mexico!, for which he acted as principal off-site producer, completed by Sergei Eisenstein, who had been commissioned for the project by Sinclair, his wife, and three other patrons of the motion picture arts. Sinclair knew nothing about film production, unfortunately, and was unable to control the situation created by Eisenstein and complicated by the changes occurring within the Soviet Film Industry, and ended up with between 150,000 and 200,000 (sources vary) feet of uncompleted film footage.

Political and Social Activism

An early success was the Civil War novel Manassas written in 1903 and published a year later. Originally projected as the opening book of a trilogy, the success of his The Jungle caused him to drop such plans, although he did revise Manassas decades later "moderating some of the exuberance of the earlier version"; a description - in Sinclair's case - very much of a relative kind.

After writing The Jungle, Sinclair invested nearly 30 percent of the proceeds into the Helicon Home for Jews Colony, a utopian society being set up in Englewood, New Jersey. Unfortunately, it burned down four months later.

He ran for Governor of California twice. The first time he ran as a Socialist candidate and garnered few votes. The second time, in 1934, as a Democrat. This time around, during the depths of the Great Depression, he began a political movement that he hoped to both combat the effects of the Depression and use as a springboard to the governorship. That plan, known as EPIC (End Poverty in California), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and Sinclair gained its nomination. Conservatives in California were themselves galvanized by this, as they saw it as an attempted Communist takeover of their state and used massive political propaganda portraying Sinclair as a Communist, even as he was being portrayed by American and Soviet Communists, following the Que Viva Mexico! debacle and his public efforts to get his (and others') investments back from a Hollywood adaptation of the Eisenstein footage, as a rank capitalist! Sinclair was defeated in the election and largely abandoned EPIC and politics to return to writing.

He lived much of his life near Pasadena, California and later in Buckeye, Arizona, but near the end of his life he moved to Bound Brook, New Jersey. He was married three times.

The Upton Sinclair House, in Monrovia, California, is a National Historic Landmark.

Upton Sinclair in fiction

In Harry Turtledove's alternative history fiction series American Empire Upton Sinclair defeats Theodore Roosevelt in 1920 to become the first Socialist President of the United States.

External links

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